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考研英语语法归纳与练习

 
 
从2002年起,研究生英语考试取消了语法、词汇等基础知识的考查,将此部分改考为听力。但取消了此部分知识点的考查并不意味着英语语法等基础知识的不重要。根据以往英语取得高分同学的经验和海文英语辅导名师的建议,他们都一致认为英语语法和词汇是学好、考好英语的重要基础,其实完形填空是对语法、词汇的综合考查,但更关键的是学好此部分有助于对英语句子结构的分析和理解,有助于学生掌握灵活多变的句式,这样不仅有助于学生做好阅读理解,而且有助于学生做好英译汉,写好作文。
一.情态动词的现在完成式的用法
情态动词现在完成式主要有两个功能:表示已经发生的情况和表示虚拟语气。在这两个方面 must/mustn't,;can/cann't;need/needn't;may/mayn't;might/mightn't;should/shouldn't;
ougtht等情态动词+完成式表示的意思是有一定区别的
1.表示已经发生的情况。
1)must have+过去分词,表示对已发生情况的肯定推测,译为“(昨天)一定……”。如:
My pain apparent the moment I walked into the room, for the first man I met asked sympathetically:” Are you feeling all right?”
[A] must be [B] had been [C] must have been [D] had to be
(答案为C)
2)can't / couldn't have+过去分词,表示对已发生情况的否定推测,译为“(昨天)一定没……”。如:
Mary my letter; otherwise she would have replied before now.
[A] couldn't have received [B] ought to have received
[C] has received [D] shouldn't have received
(答案为A)
3)may / might have +过去分词,表示对已发生的事情做不肯定、可能性很小的推测,或事实上根本没发生,译为“也许……”。如:
At Florida Power's Crystal River plant, a potentially serious leakage of radioactive water may have been unknowingly caused by an electrici2.表示虚拟语气。 1) needn't have + 过去分词,表示做了不必做的事,相当于”didn't need to do”,译为“其实没必要……”。如: You needn't have come over yourself. As it turned out to be a small house party, we so formally. [A] needn't dress up [B]did not need have dressed up [C] did not need dress up [D] needn't have dressed up (没有必要穿的那么正式,体现是说话者的建议,实际结果是否真的穿的很正式没有确定,答案为D) 2)should have +过去分词,表示应该做某事但实际上未做,译为“本应该……”should not + have过去分词表示本不应该做某事但实际上做了,译为“本不应该……”。如: I regret having left the work unfinished; I should have planned everything ahead carefully. 我本来应该事先认真地把每件事情规划的很好,但实际上作者还是没有规划好,以至工作没有完成。 3) ought to have +过去分词,表示动作按理该发生了,但实际上未发生,译为“该……”,与should 的完成式含义类似。如: The porter ought to have called the fire-brigade as soon as he saw the fire in the stock, which went up in smoke . 4) could have +过去分词,表示过去本来可以做但却未做,译为“完全可以……”。这点与ought/should/ have +过去分词用法相似。如: What you said is right, but you could have phrased it more tactfully. 5) may/ might have +过去分词,表示过去可以做但实际未做,译为“(那样)也许会……”。如: It might have been better to include more punchy statistics and photos of equipment in the introduction to further assist first-time office automation managers. 二.几个情态动词常考的句型: 1).may/might (just) as well “不妨,最好”,与had better相近; Since the flight was cancelled, you might as well go by train. 既然航班已经取消了,你不妨乘火车吧。相当于you had better go by train。 2) .cannot / can't…too …“越……越好,怎么也不过分”。注意这个句型的变体cannot…over….如: You cannot be too careful when you drive a car.驾车时候,越小心越好。 The final chapter covers organizational change and development. This subject cannot be over emphasized . 3) .usedn't 或did't use to 为used to (do) 的否定式。 4).should 除了“应该”一层意思外,考研大纲还规定要掌握其“竟然”的意思。如:I didn't expect that he should have behaved like that. 我无法想象他竟然这样做。 三.情态动词被动关系的主动表达法 1. want, require, worth(形容词)后面接doing也可以表示被动意义。 Your hair wants cutting The book is worth reading The floor requires washing. 2.need既可以用need to be done 也可以使用need doing ,两种形式都表达被动的意义 The house needs painting= the house needs to be painted. The watch needed repairing= the watch needed to be repaired. (二) 形容词、副词及比较级最高级 一.形容词的修饰与位置 一般来说,从构词法角度来看,后缀”ly”往往是副词,但有的以“ly'结尾的词是形容词而不是副词,这点要注意;形容词一般可以在句子中做定语,表语等成份,但有些形容词在句子中只能做表语和只能做前置定语;这些形容词在修饰时候有一定的特殊性要引起大家的注意,下面做了一下归纳: 1 以-ly结尾的是形容词而不是副词: costly 昂贵的 lonely 孤独的 deadly 死一般的 lively 活泼的 friendly 友好的 silly 傻气的 kindly 热心肠的 likely 可能的 leisurely 悠闲的 ugly 长得丑的 brotherly 兄弟般的 monthly 每月的 earthly 尘世的 2 只作以“a”开头的很多形容词只能做表语: afraid 害怕的 alike 相象的 awake 醒着的 alone 单独的,惟一的 alive 活着的 ashamed 羞愧的 asleep 睡着的 aware 意识到的、察觉到的 well 健康的 content 满意的 unable 无能的 3 只作前置定语的形容词 earthen 泥土做的,大地的 daily 每日的 latter 后面的 golden 金子般的 weekly 每周的 inner 里面的 silken 丝一般的 monthly 每月的 outer 外面的 wooden 木制的 yearly 每年的 elder 年长的 woolen 毛织的 former 前任的 mere 仅,只不过 only 惟一的 sheer 纯粹的 very 恰好的 little 小的 live 活的 4.下列动词既是实义动词又是系动词,注意用做系动词时,要求形容词做表语: remain keep become, get, grow, go, come, turn, stay, stand, run, prove, seem, appear, look。 如:All those left undone may sound great in theory, but even the truest believer has great difficulty when it comes to specifics. 二.形容词与副词的比较级与最高级 1. 考比较级时,考生应把握: 1)形容词和副词比较级的形式是否和比较连词对应出现,即是否符合原级比较及比较级的结构。如: Do you enjoy listening to records? I find records are often , or better than an actual performance. [A]as good as [B]as good [C]good [D]good as 在这里as good as 比较连词与better than比较连词同时出现时候,不能省略任何一个介词。答案为A On the whole, ambitious students are more likely to succeed in their studies than are those with little ambition. 2)比较的成分是否属于同类事物或同类概念,既是说比较要具有可比性。如: The number of registered participants in this year's marathon was half . [A] of last year's [B]those of last year's [C]of those of last year [D] that of last year's (前后相比的应该是今年和去年注册参加的人数“the number of”故代替它的应该是单数指示代词“that”,而不能选择B,those是指代participants,不是同类对比,答案为D。 Young readers, more often than not, find the novels of dickens far more exciting than Thackeray's. 3)比较级与倍数词关系及其位置 原级结构中可插入表达倍数的词,表示为“为….若干倍”,当与有表示倍数比较的词在一起时候等,他们的位置是,倍数词+as…as…,或倍数词+more…than…,但again一般放在原级词之后,即 “as+原级+again+as”.如: Smoking is so harmful to personal health that it kills people each year than automobile accidents. [A] seven more times [B] seven times more [C] over seven times [D] seven times (答案为B) “Do you regret paying five hundred dollars for the painting?”“No, I would gladly have paid for it.” [A] twice so much [B] twice as much [C] as much twice [D] so much twice (答案为B) My uncle is as old again as I am 4)下列词和短语不用比较级形式却表示比较概念: inferior, minor, senior, prior, prefer to, superior, major, junior, preferable, differ from, compared with, in comparison with, different from, rather than. 如: Their watch is to all the other watches on the market. [A] superior [B] advantageous [C] super [D] beneficial (答案为A) Prior to his departure, he addressed a letter to his daughter. (1986年考研题) 5)“比较级+and +比较级”或“more and more/less and less +原级”以及“ever, steadily, daily等副词+比较级”结构表示“越来越……”的意思,与这类结构搭配的常用动词有grow, get ,become等。前面两种情况更多地出现在进行时态中,注意的是这三种情况引导的比较级后面都不需要用than.如: Things are getting worse and worse. As I spoke to him he became less and less angry. Her health was becoming daily worse The road got ever worse until there was no road at all = the road got worse and worse. 6)比较级前面可以用even, still, yet ,all the (more)等修饰语用以加强语气,表示“更加”的意思。如 Today it is even colder than yesterday I have yet more exciting news for you 7) 有关比较级的特殊句型: A): not so much…as…与其说……不如说…… The chief reason for the population growth isn't so much a rise in birth rates a fall in death rates as a result of improvements in medical care. [A] and [B] as [C]but [D] or 人口增长的主要原因与其说是因为出生率的提高,还不如说是因为医疗的进步带来的死亡率下降的结果。答案为B B) no/not any more…than…两者一样都不…… The heart is intelligent than the stomach, for they are both controlled by the brain. [A] not so [B]not much [C]much more [D] no more (心脏和胃两者都不具有智力,他们都受大脑控制。答案为D) There is no reason they should limit how much vitamin you take, they can limit how much water you drink. [A] much more than [B] no more than [C] no less than [D] any more than (答案为D) C)no/not any less…than…两者一样,都……注意基本上与no/not any more…than意思相反 She is no less beautiful than her sister.她和她姐姐一样漂亮 D)just as… so… 正如……, ……也……(用倒装结构) Just as the soil is a part of the earth, the atmosphere. [A] as it is [B] the same is [C] so is [D] and so is (答案为C) 2.最高级形式应注意的问题: 1)最高级比较范围用介词in, over, of, among。 in, (all) over用于在某一范围内的比较,如:in China, all over the world. of, among用于在同一群体内同类事物的比较,如:among the teachers, of the four dresses. 注意:among…相当于one of …,不说among all…。这一点考生应与汉语表达区别开来 如: all visible lights, red light has the longest and violet the shortest wavelength. [A] Among [B] Of [C]For [D]To 答案为[B] 2)比较级形式表示最高级意义时,比较对象的范围应用: any other +单数名词 the other +复数名词 the others anyone/anything else 上述词是用业将比较级结构转变成最高级意义的关键词语,切不可遗漏,尤其是other,否则会造成逻辑混乱的错误。如不能说:John runs faster than anyone.注意与汉语表达的不同。 3)most可以用来修饰形容词或副词,意思相当于very,用法区分单复数,但不能用定冠词the,如:a most interesting book, most expensive restaurants, 要注意与 “the +形容词最高级+of + 名词”的结构表示的最高级的区别,如: He spoke in the warmest of voices They have been most kind to me Basketball is the most popular of sports in this country. Chinese is the most difficult of language Chinese is a most difficult language 三.不用比较级和最高级的形容词: 1)表示颜色的有:white, black 2)表示形态的有:round, square, oval, circular, triangular(三角形),level 3)表示性质和特征的有:atomic, economic, scientific, sonic, golden, silvery, woolen, earthen, silent, full, empty, sure, dead, deaf, blind, lame, rainy 4)表示状态作表语的有:afraid, asleep, alive, ashamed, alone, aware, alike 5)表示时间、空间和方位的有:daily, weekly, monthly, annual, present, front, back, forward, backward, east, west, south, north, left, right, final 6)表示极限、主次、等级的有:maximum, minimum, utmost, main, major, chief minor, superior, inferior, senior, junior, super, favorite 7)含有绝对概念的有:absolute, entire, whole, total, perfect, excellent, thorough, complete. 四.平行结构与比较级 平行结构很多情况下是由形容词或副词的比较级或者暗含比较意味的连词引导的。如: The ideal listener stays both inside and outside the music at the moment it is played and enjoys it almost as much as the composer at the moment he composes. 大多数情况下平行结构都是具有一定的比较含义的,有的是递进对比not only…but (also) ;prefer…to…;rather than有的是同类对比:and ;but;or;both… and…;either…or…; neither…nor….. 平行结构测试时候注意以下几点: 1.注意比较结构中相比较的内容在语法形式上是否相同。如: It is better to die one's feet than . [A]living on one's knees [B]live on one's knees [C]on one's knees [D]to live on one's knees (答案为D) Despite the temporary difficulties, the manager prefers increasing the output to decreasing it. 2.其他具有并列或比较意义的短语也可引导平行结构。 1)rather than, let alone 虽不是并列连词,但在结构上连接两个语法形式相同的成分。如: We are taught that a business letter should be written in a formal style in a personal style. [A]rather than [B]other than [C]better than [D]less than 答案为A For the new country to survive, for its people to enjoy prosperity, new economic policies will be required. [A] to name a few [B]let alone [C]not to speak [D]let's say (答案为B) 2)如果平行的两个成分在形式上是介词短语,而且介词相同,一般说来第二个介词不要省略。如: At times, more care goes into the composition of newspaper and magazine advertisements than into the writing of the features and editorials. (三)代词及其指代一致 一.代词的指代 1.that的指代作用 that指代不可数名词和单数可数名词(如是复数,用those),后面通常跟有修饰语,如出现在比较结构中的that of。如 Conversation calls for a willingness to alternate the role of speaker with that of listener, and it calls for occasional “digestive pauses” by both.这里that指代前面的the role。 No bread eaten by men is so sweet as that earned by his own labor. 2.one的指代作用 one指代带不定冠词的单数可数名词,复数为ones。the one指代带定冠词的单数可数名词。如: A good writer is who can express the commonplace in an uncommon way. [A] that [B]he [C]one [D]this 答案为[C] 3.do的替代作用。 do代替动词,注意数和时态的变化。如: For him to be re-elected, what is essential is not that his policy works , but that the public believe that it does. 二.代词指代一致问题 代词指代一致是指指代的名词在性、数、格上是否一致,或者所照应的名词词组在某些方面保持一致。 Each cigarette a person smokes does some harm, and eventually he may get a serious disease form its effect. 这里he指代前面的person。 It was during the 1920's that the friendship between the two American writers Hemingway and Fitzgerald reached its highest point. 这里its指代前面的两人的friendship。 Our department was monitored by two supervisors, Bill and me. 这里me必须用宾格形式。 代词指代一致必须注意以下几个原则和规律: 1.邻近和靠近原则 由either … or, neither…nor, not only…but (also)连接先行词时候,如果两个先行词在数和性上保持一致,就用其相应的一直的人称代词;如果两个先行词在数或性上不一致,人称代词一般与邻近的先行词在数和性上保持一致。 Neither Mary nor Alice has her key with her. Neither the package nor the letters have reached their destination If either David or Janet comes , he or she will want a drink 2.当each, everyone, everybody, no one ,none ,anybody, someone, somebody用作主语或主语的限定词时候,或者anything, nothing, something everything等不定代词作主语时候,其相应的代词一般按照语法一致原则,采取单数形式。如: Everybody talked at the top of his voice. None of the boys can do it , can he? Everything is ready, isn't it” 3.当主语为复数形式,后跟each作同位语时,如果each位于动词之前,其后的代词或相应的限定词用复数形式;如果 each位于动词之后,其后的代词或相应的限定词用单数形式。如: They each have two coats we are each responsible for his own family 4.由and连接两个先行词,代词用复数 如:the tourist and businessmen lost their luggage in the accident (三) 主谓一致问题 主谓一致是指主语与谓语在数上要一致。把握主谓一致问题,考生主要解决的是对不同结构的主语单复数的认定,进而选择适当的谓语。解决主谓一致主要遵循三个原则: 语法一致原则 意义一致原则 就近一致原则 很多情况下应该综合利用这三个原则来处理主谓一致,在不同情况下可能应用三个原则中的不同原则,具体应用哪种原则应该视具体情况而定。总结如下: 一.谓语动词用单数的情况 1.动名词短语、不定式短语、名词性从句做主语,谓语用单数。如: Buying clothes is often a time-consuming job because those clothes that a person likes are rarely the cones that fit him or her. (1987年考研题) To understand the situation completely requires more thought than has been given thus far. 2.表示时间、距离、金额、重量、面积、体积、容积等度量的名词短语做主语时,谓语用单数。 Two weeks was too long Five times five makes twenty five 3.一般用and连接的两个单词或短语做主语时候,谓语用复数,但是下面用and连接的主语表示一个概念,谓语用单数: law and order 法制 soap and water 肥皂水 a cup and saucer 茶杯碟子 fork and knife 刀叉 the needle and thread 针线 trial and error 反复尝试,不断摸索 horse and carriage 马车 time and tide 岁月 bread and butter 奶油面包 the ebb and flow 盛衰,潮涨潮落 如: If law and order not preserved, neither the citizen nor his property is safe. A. is B. are C. was d. were 答案:A。 4.表示学科和某些疾病名称的名词是复数形式,作主语时候谓语动词用单数形式 Linguistics is a branch of study on human language. 5.有些名词形式上是复数,意义上是单数,根据意义一致原则动词用单数 The chaos was stopped by the police The news is a great encouragement to us A series of debates between the lectures was scheduled for the next weekend. 6.用and 连接的成份表示一个单一概念时候,动词谓语用单数形式 Bread and butter is our daily food Time and tide waits for no man 二. 谓语用复数情况 1. 由and, both …and, 连接的并列主语,和both ,a few, many ,several 等修饰语后面谓语动词通常用复数形式。 Few people know he and I were classmates when we were at college. 2.集体名词police, public, militia, cattle ,class ,youth后常用复数形式的动词 The Chinese people are brave and hardworking The cattle are grazing in the sunshine 3.当表示民族的词与冠词合用当主语,谓语动词用复数形式 The Japanese were once very aggressive 4.某些形容词前面加定冠词表示一类人,做主语时候,谓语动词用复数 The rich are not always selfish 5.不可数名词作主语,其前有表示数量的复数名词修饰时,谓语动词用复数 Three million tons of coal were exported that year 三.谓语动词可用单数,也可以用复数的情况 1. 就近一致原则 这种情况下,谓语动词使用单数还是复数取决于最靠近该动词的主语的单复数,存在这种情况的主要由以下几种可能: 1) 由连词 either…or…; neither…nor…; whether… or…;not only…but (also) ;or 等连接的并列主语 Neither money nor fame has influence on me Not only you but also he is wrong 2) 在倒装结构中,谓语动词与后面的第一个主语一致 Blocking the open-sided porch, framed by the enveloping fog, stands a tall grave-faced policeman. Just outside the ruins is a magnificent building surrounded by tall trees. Although a great number of houses in that area are still in need of repair, there has been improvement in the facili 2. 主语带有(together/along)with, such as, accompanied by, as well as, no less than, except, besides, with, combined with, in addition to , including, together with 等等附加成分,谓语的数不受附加成分的影响仍然与主语保持一致 Professor Taylor , with six of his students ,is attending a conference in Boston organized to compare current practice in the United States with those of other nations. The president of the college, together with the deans, is planning a conference for the purpose of laying down certain regulations. (1981年考研题) 3.关系代词做主语的定语从句中,谓语的数要与先行词一致。如: Despite much research, there are still certain elements in the life cycle of the insect that are not fully understood. (1996年考研题) There are many valuable services which the public are willing to pay for, but which do not bring a return in money to the community. (1990年考研题) 4.一些表示数量的短语与名词连用时候,谓语动词的数取决于名词的数,名词是复数,谓语动词用复数,反之就用单数。这些短语包括:a lot of /lots of; plenty of/heaps of; half of; two-third (three-fourth…) of; eighty(ten, twenty…) percent; part of; rest of ; none of 等等 Two-thirds of people present are women Lots of damage was caused by the fire 5.集体名词作主语时,谓语动词的数取决于主语表示的意思和数,当表示整体时候,谓语动词就用单数,当强调集体中的个体时候,谓语动词就用复数。这些集体名词如:army, audience, band ,government ,group ,flock, police, public ,staff ,team ,troop. Crowd, firm, family 等等 The family is the basic unit of our society The family were watching the TV The audience was enormous The audience were greatly moved at the words 6.某些固定结构中主语与谓语的数: 第一组: a great many + 可数名词复数 谓语用复数 a number of + 可数名词复数 谓语用复数 the majority of + 可数名词复数 谓语用复数 第二组; the number of + 可数名词复数 谓语用单数 each/every + 可数名词复数 谓语用单数 neither/either of + 可数名词复数 谓语用单数 one and a half + 可数名词复数 谓语用单数 第三组; more than one + 可数名词单数 谓语用单数 many a + 可数名词单数 谓语用单数 第四组; the greater part of a large proportion of 50% of one third of plenty of the rest of 谓语的数与of 后面的名词一致 第五组; (n)either…(n)or…. not only….. but also …… not …..but …… 谓语的数与主语的第二部分(即(n)or/ but also/ but引导的后面部分)一致. 注意比较: More students than one have been referred to More than one student is going to buy this book (四)倒装结构 倒装是指句子成分不是按主语在前、谓语在后的正常语序排列,而是将谓语或谓语的一部分移到主语之前。倒装是一种修辞手段,目的是为了强调。倒装分为部分倒装和全部倒装,考试多为部分倒装。考生应掌握什么情况下需要倒装,并对倒装后的句子能够认出来,避免做题时候的盲目和迷茫。 一. 用全部倒装的情况 全部倒装一般是存在以下列副词开头的句子中,全部倒装的方法是把句子的主谓语序颠倒过来,把谓语移到主语前面: 1)出于修辞需要,表示方向的副词:out, down, in ,up, away, on。如: Down jumped the burglar from the tenth floor when he heard someone shouted at him. Up went the plane 2)出于习惯用法:here, there, now, thus, hence, then.如: Now is your turn. There goes the bell. Here is a ticket for you There existed a certain doubt among the students as to the necessity of work 注意:here,there用于倒装结构时主语一般为名词,如果是人称代词则不需要倒装 “ where is the cup?” “Here it is!” Here you are. There he comes. 3)有时主语较长,为了使句子平衡,避免头重脚轻,主谓要全部倒装。这种情况多出现在主系表结构中。如: Less important than ever is developing a meaningful philosophy of life. In between these two extremes are those people who agree with the jury system as a whole, but feel that some changes need to be implemented to improve its effectiveness. 二. 采用部分倒装情况 部分倒装一般是把句子谓语的一部分(主要是助动词或系动词)放到句子主语前,构成部分倒装,而全部倒装则把句子的谓语(包括实义动词)都放在主语前 1.下列否定词及含有否定意义的词组修饰状语时,若置于句首,句子的主谓要部分倒装,: never, no, neither, not only, hardly, scarcely, little, seldom, rarely, not until, nowhere, at no time, on no account, in no respect, in no sense, by no means, in vain, still less。如: Not only is its direct attack on their discipline, it bypasses the essence of what sociologists focus on. Under no circumstances should we do anything that will benefit ourselves but harm the interests of the state. (1985年考研题) 注:1)如果谓语动词是单个实义动词,倒装时需根据人称和时态加助动词do。如: Little did we expect that he would fulfill his task so rapidly. (1983年考研题) 2)考生要广义理解“句首”的概念,注意从句的句首和并列分句的句首均为句首。如: Suddenly, Gallup's name was on everyone's lips; not only was he the prophet of the moment, but it was generally believed that he had founded a new and most important method of prediction. 2.以only修饰状语(副词,介词短语,状语从句)开头的句子,句子的主谓要部分倒装: only then, only at that time, only once, only in this way, only with, only through, only by, only when, only after, only because。如: Only when you have obtained sufficient data come to a sound conclusion. [A]can you [B]would you [C]you will [D]you can 3.以下列副词或短语开头的句子,句子的主谓要部分倒装: often, so, well, to such a degree, to such an extent, to such extremes, to such a point, many a time。如: So involved with their computers that leaders at summer computer camps often have to force them to break for sports and games. [A]became the children [B]become the children [C]had the children become [D]do the children become (2001年考研题,答案为D) 4.比较从句的倒装: as, than引导的比较从句中,如果主语是名词短语且较长,经常采用倒装结构(不倒装也可以)。注意:这种结构主语一般为名词,如果是代词则不倒装。如: Hydrogen burns much more cleanly than do other fuels and is easy to produce. Today's electuic cars cannot go as fast as gasoline-driven vehicles because the battery does not offer the same amount of energy as does gasoline combustion. Reading is to the mind as is exercise to the body. 5.用于前面所说的情况也适用于另一人(物)的肯定句或否定句中的倒装 1) 肯定重复倒装用:so They have got up, and so has jack 2) 否定重复倒装用:nor, neither, no more If you don't agree to our plan, neither will they 6.“not only..but also”结构时,如果not only 放在句首,则前半句but (also)句子后面不倒装 Not only did we lose all our money, but we also came close to being broke. 三. 特殊的倒装结构 特殊形式的倒装结构是指句子虽然是倒装结构,但不是主谓倒装,而往往是出于强调的需要,把强调部分移到句首,而其它部分顺序不需要改变,句子主谓不需要倒装。出现这样的情况有以下几种可能: 1.让步从句的倒装。 1)as引导让步状语从句,必须采用倒装结构,但不是主谓倒装,而是将被强调的内容置于句首。如: Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone to equal her, in thoroughness, whatever the job. Brave as they are, they are afraid of fight 2).出现在句型be+主语+其他,come what may中。如: While it's true that we all need a career, preferably a profitable one, it is equally true that our civilization has accumulated an incredible amount of knowledge—be it scientific or artistic. The business of each day selling goods or shipping them, went quite smoothly. [A] it being [B] be it [C] was it [D] it was (答案为B) 3) no matter how(who…);however引导的让步状语从句必须采用倒装结构,但不是主谓倒装,而是将被强调的内容置于句首。如: No matter how busy he is , he has to attend the meeting However cold it is , he always goes swimming. 语法测试 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------1. She said that she __ much progress since she came here. A. makes B. made C. have made D had made 2. “What's the matter, Ali? You look sad." “Oh, nothing much. As a matter of fact, I my friends back home." A. just thought B. have just been thinking C. was just thinking D. have just thought 3. She on this essay for twenty minutes but she has written only about a hundred words. A. will be working B. worked C. has been working D. will have worked 4. The committee will not make the decision until it the matter. A. has investigated B.investigates C. will have investigated D. investigated 5. Carey didn't go to the party last night because she the baby for her sister until 9:30. A.must have looked after B. would have to look after C. had to look after D. should have looked after 6. four years since John left school. A. They have been B. It is C. It was D. Those are 7.The car at the present speed until it reaches the foot of the mountain at about 4 o' clock this afternoon. A. has gone B. has not gone C will be going D. has been going 8. By the time you arrive in London, we __ in Europe for two weeks. A. shall stay B. have stayed C. will have stayed D. have been staying 9. Between 1897 and 1919 at least 29 motion pictures in which artificial beings were portrayed . A. had produced B. have been produced C. would have produced D. had been produced 10. The president __ the delegation at the airport but he was taken ill last night, so the vice-president is going to instead. A. is to meet B. was to meet C. has been to meet D. was to have met 语法测题答案与详解 1.(D) 根据时态一致的原则,间接引语(或宾语从句)的时态应与主句的时态一致。该句中said是过去时所以that引导的宾语从句中也要用过去的某一种时态,而从句中since引导的时间状语从句表明其应为完 成时态,故应用过去完成时态。 2.(C) 通过上下文可以判定Ali看起来很难受很伤心,是因为刚才在进行的事情所导致的,所以用过去进行时较好,故(C)是正确答案。 3,(C) 根据句意和时间状语for twenty minutes,可以判断这里应填入现在完成时态,现在完成进行时是现在完成时态的强调形式,并且选项中没有现在完成时态,所以(C)是正确答案。 4.(A) 句意表明委员会是在调查事件之后才会做出决定,调查应发生在决定之前,所以应用将来完成时态,但是在英语中,时间条件状语从句中的将来完成时态是由现在完成时来表示的,所以正确答案是(A)。 5.(C) 从上下文的逻辑意义看,(C)项是唯一的正确答案。Carey没有参加晚会,原因是给她姐姐照看小孩子。而(A)和(D)表示对过去发生的事情根据客观情况作出主观推断:(A)作“准是看孩子了”讲;(D)作 “本应该看孩子”讲,都不对,而(B)表示动作发生在过去的将来,也不对,所以只有(C)正确。 6.(B) 这是一个固定结构(或句型)。本句也可说在"Four years have passed since John left school.”或“has been four years sinceJohn left schoo1.'' 7,(C) until引导的时间状语从句用了一般现在时表示将来的意思,主句因此必须用一般将来时与之呼应,口语中常用将来进行时代替一般将来时表示预料即将发生或肯定发生的事,也可表示某件事已经决定了。本句完全可以用will go 因此,正确答案是(C)。 ? 8.(C) by the time引导的时间状语从句中若谓语动词用现在时,则主句要用将来完成时;若谓语动词用过去时,则主句要用过去完成时,有时也可以用过去将来完成时。这样,本道题目的正确答案是(C)。 9.(D) 有具体表示过去某一时间段内业已发生的事件的时间状语,句子应该用过去完成时。 10.(B) 由第一个句子中的but引导的转折句中所用的过去时,可以判断总统本要在机场接见代表团,表示计划要做某事在英语中可以用be+动词不定式来表达,故正确答案是B)。
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