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词汇与语法---石春祯英语讲义(同义词辨析)

 
 
Modern English Usage
A1.a certain, some
(1) I read it in a certain book.
(2) I read it in some book.
A2. A good many, a great many, a great deal of, a lot of, a number of,
plenty of
a good many[=a large number of ]
a great many
a great deal of
a lot of 
a number of [=some]
plenty of [=more than enough]
(1) A great many new books were published by the Foreign Language Press last week.
(2) I’m afraid I’m putting you to a great deal of trouble.
(3) A lot of damage was caused by the fire.
(4) A number of guests have come.
(5)These are plenty of rooms in the guest house.
A3.few, a few, little, a little
A4.able, can, capable
1) able, can
(1) Can you ride a bicycle?
(2) I shall not be able to come again today.
(3) I have not been able to see the problem from all sides.
2) able to; capable of
(1) He is able to handle this alone.
(2) He is capable of carrying the task.
(3) He was able to hear the engine.
The engine was able to be heard.[The engine could be heard.]
3)(1)He is capable of any crime.
4)(1)I was able to catch what he said.
(2)The passage is capable of several interpretations.
5)(1)She is not able to sing tonight.
(2)She can’t sing at all.
(4) She is incapable of learning mathematics.
A5.be about to, be going to
1)(1)I am about to go immediately.应改为I am about to go.[=I shall go very soon.]
2)(1) We were just about to leave when you telephoned.
(2) I was just about falling into a doze, when he suddenly started up.
3)(1) The holidays will come to an end. I am going to climb Mount Tai next week.
(2) She is going to have a baby.
A6. Above
(1) He is above doing such a thing.
(2) Above comprehension; (all praise; reproach; suspicion).
A7.above, over, on, up
(1) A lamp hangs above us.
(2) A lamp hangs over us.
(3) He speaks to me over his shoulder.
(4) Books laid one on/above another
A8. Above, beyond
1) Some of the tourists are from beyond the seas.
2) It is beyond belief (compare, controversy, dispute, doubt, endurance, hope, question, praise, recovery).
3) The state of affairs is beyond their control.
A9. According to, in accordance with, according as
1) according to
(1) According to arrangements, the goods were to be delivered by the end of next month.
(2) According to dialectical materialism, matter is primary and thought is secondary.
(3) From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs.
2) in accordance with
(1) This is done in accordance with (according to ) the instruction of the Party.
(2) The idealistic interpretation of history is not in accordance with sober truth.
(3) The word is pronounced in accordance with (according to)sound American usage .
3) according as
(1) You may go or stay, according as you decide.
(2) A sound is often different according to whether it is strongly stressed or not .
(3) You will be praised or blamed according as your work is good or bad.
(4) We have different views of a thing according as we are materialists or idealists.
A10. Act, action
1) His heroic act (action) was long remembered.
2) (1)It was his act and he must accept the consequencens.
(2)Rapid action is needed if we are to overfulfill the quota.
3) Act, not words, is what we need.
4) The accident was due to the action of acid on the check nut.
A11. Adequate (enough, sufficient, ample)
1)(1)means adequate to the ends
(2)adequate medical treatment.
(3) Have you made sufficient (or enough) investigation?
(4) The supply is not adequate to the demand.
2) It is a remedy adequate for the disease.
A12. Ago, before
1)(1)I met him three years ago.
(2)I had met him three years ago.
(3)His mother died five years ago.
He said that his mother had died five years before.
2)He must have seen her a week ago.
3)I did not know that before.
A13.agree
1)I told him about my proposal and he at once agreed to it .
2)I agree with you (your views).
I do not agree with imposing a fine upon him.
3)I never eat pork; it does not agree with me.
4)The boss agreed to the terms only under the pressure of the workers.
5) There is one point in which they all agree.
They all agreed on the matter.
6) The two don’t agree at all; we have to do more ideological work with them.
A14.air
1) Let’s go out and have some fresh air.
2) Take to the air; mastery of the air;
The letter was sent on the air.
Travel by air
3) The rumour has taken air.
4) What’s on the air?
The premier will be on the air.
5) a slight air; a cheerful air
He has an air of importance
5) put on high airs; give oneself airs
A15.all, every, each
1) All things have an end.
Everything comes to an end.
2) I told every/each student to come.
3) I don’t know everyone of them.
4) each of the boys
A16. All, whole
⊿ a whole year; the whole day; whole milk powder
⊿ The whole army will be mobilized.
⊿ The workers devoted all their energy to the task.
1)(1) all the world; all the city; all the time; all my life; all the afternoon.
(2) the whole world; the whole city, the whole nation; the whole time
2)(1) It rained three whole days.
(2) Fifty is a whole number.
3.不能说: the whole books; the whole China
应该说:the whole book; the whole of the students; the whole of China; the whole of my time.
A17. Almost, nearly
1)(1) They had almost finished when they were interrupted.
(2)They are nearly at the end of their journey.
2) a book that is almost/nearly completed.
3) (1)This is almost more than we feared.
(2)That was almost too late.
4)(1) There is almost none left.
(2) He got almost no help from others.
(3) He said almost nothing worth hearing.
5)(1) It is not nearly so easy as you think.[by no means, far from]
A18.any, every
1)(1) I’m expecting him every moment.
(2) he may come at any moment.
2)(1) I do not know any one of them.
(2) I do not know every one of them.
A19. Argue, debate, dispute, discuss
1) argue
(1) They argued with each other about the best English translation of Iiiad.
(2) The plan for which we had argued turned out to be a great success.
(3) He argued that the Oral English class could be conducted in another way.
2) debate
(1) Senator Johnson says they’re going to debate a proposed amendment today.
3) dispute
(1) They were still disputing the rights and wrongs of the case at midnight.
4) discuss
I’m going to discuss the question with the monitor.
A20. As, for
1)(1) They lived and died as revolutionaries.
(2) They chose him for their representative.
(3) The room serves as (for) an office.
3) as常与下列动词连用:regard, look upon, consider, own, recognize, acknowledge, serve
for(=as)常与下列动词连用:have, take, know, choose
(1) He is universally acknowledged as an outstanding communist fighter.
(2) Have such a man for a friend!
A21.assumption, presumption
(1) Our original assumption is that Smith is innocent, but facts already disclosed in this case create a presumption of guilt.
(2) Don’t believe what he says. There is a strong presumption against its truth.
A22.at a(one) time
(1) He spoke two hours at a time.
(2) At one time I used to go swimming every Sunday.
A23.at last, at long last, after all
1)(1) In spite of every obstacle, we have at last arrived.
(2) After a voyage of three months, we at length arrived safe.
2)At long last he has returned me the book he borowed.
3) I tried for an hour and failed after all.
4) At last he did not come .[应改为:After all he did not come.]
5) The teacher explained the poem at length to the students.
A24.at school, in school
1) at school
(1) She went out to do her shopping while the children were at school .
(2) I was at school until almost half past five yesterday.
2) in school
(1) Students are not allowed in school before 5:30 a.m.
(2) We did the first part of the exercise in school, and the rest for homework.
A25.at the moment, in the moment
1)(1)at this very moment, at the last moment, at the crucial moment, at the moment of death.
(2) in the moment of danger, in the moment of deep distress
3)(1) I’m sorry I can’ write the report now. I’m busy at the moment.
(2) Stop working at those arithmetic problems for the moment, Jane.
(3) Let me speak for a moment.
(4) The match will start in a moment.
A26. At work . in work
1) at work
(1) Father is at work now. He won’t be back until six.
(2) The same influence was already at work.
(3) He has published two novels and is at work on a third.
2) in work
(1) He is in (out of) work.
(2) The studio has three films in work right now.
(3) Take pleasure in work; up to the eyes in work.
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