B．用wish表示对将来的愿望时，它所引起的宾语从句中谓语动词形式为：would, could, might+ 动词原形。
C．wish用于对过去的事实表示一种不可能实现的愿望时，宾语从句中的谓语动词形式为：had+动词过去分词或could, would + have +动词过去分词。
The picture exhibition bored me to death; I wish I had not gone to it.
---“I let Joe borrow our radio for the afternoon.”
---“That’s all right, but I wish he would buy one of his own.”
I wish that he weren’t so lazy.
His father had hoped that his son would go to business with him, but his son became an artist later.
(3)would (had) rather, would as soon, would sooner和would prefer所引起的从句中要求用过去式表示当时或将来的情况，用过去完成时表示过去的情况，表示希望或婉转的责备。例如：
I’d rather you posted the letter right away. 我倒希望你把这封信立刻寄出去。
I would prefer he didn’t stay there too long.我倒希望他不要在那儿可得太久。
I would just as soon you had returned the book yesterday.我真希望你昨天把这本书还了。
（4）It’s (high, about) time that 句型中that从句中要求用虚拟语气形式，即动词要用过去式。
It’s time that something was done about the traffic problem downtown.
It is high time that we put an end to this discussion.现在是我们该结束讲座的时候了。
Church as we use the word refers to all religious institutions, be they Christian, Islamivc, Buddhist, Jewish, and so on.
The business of each day, be it selling goods or shipping them, went quite smoothly.
（6）由连接词in case, so that ,unless, lest ,for fear that引起的状语从句中，谓语动词要用虚拟形式，即should(might, would)+动词原形，例如：
She put a blanket over the baby for fear that he should catch cold. 她在那个婴儿身上盖上了毯子以免他着凉。
The bad man was put in the soft-padded cell lest he injure himself.
(7) if it were not for…与现在事实相反， if it had not been for与过去事实相反，两个都相当于but for：
If it had not been for his help(=but for his help),we would not have succeeded.
(8) 虚拟语气用于as if（though）引起的方式状语从句和表语从句中，其动词形式与wish宾语从句的形式相同。例如：She often laughs spontaneously, and her good humor breaks out as brightly as if it were a part of the sunshine above.她常常发出发自内心的微笑，而且她那美好的情绪像天上一道明亮的阳光一样，常常流露出来。
They talked as if they had been friends for years.他们交谈着，就好像他们是我年的老朋友一样。
She looks as if she would cry.她看起来好像要哭了。
(9)其它各种句型, as though, suppose, had rather, supposing, if only等等
If I were in a movie, then it would be about time that I buried my head in my hands for a cry.
ask要求 advise建议 arrange安排 beg请求
command命令 decide决定 demand要求 desire渴望
determine决定 insist坚持 intend打算 maintain坚持主张
move建议，动员 propose提议 object反对 order命令
prefer建议 require 需要 request要求 resolve下决心
recommend推荐 suggest建议 stipulate约定，规定 urge强调，促进
vote公认，提议 decree颁布（法令） pray请求
She advised that we should keep the gate locked.（书面体）
She advised us to keep the gate locked.（口语）
She advised keeping the gate locked.(较随便)
advisable合理的 decided决定的 crucial关键的 appropriate恰当的
determined决定的 commanded命令的 arranged安排的 essential紧要的，基本的
complied遵照 anxious焦急的 imperative迫切的 important重要的
desirable合意的 better较好的，更好 insistent坚持的 desired想要
asked请求 keen渴望的 incredible难以置信的 adamant坚定不移的
natural自然的 insisted坚持 necessary必要的 suggested建议
urgent紧迫的 ordered命令 shocked震惊的 vital极其重要的
possible可能的 strange 奇怪的 preferable （好一点） proposed提议
requested要求的 required要求的 recommended推荐 resolved决定的
probable（可能的） pity可惜，憾事 shame遗憾
It is essential that he should be prepared for this.
It is essential for him to be prepared for this.
advice忠告 decision决定 demand要求 desire要求、愿望
insistence坚持 motion提议 necessity必要性 order命令
preference偏爱 proposal提议 pray恳求 recommendation推荐
request要求 requirement要求 resolution决心 suggestion劝告、忠告
This is their resolution that extra-curriculum activities be made part of their school life.这是他们的决议：要使得课外活动成为他们学校生活的一部分。
The motion that the remark of the last speaker be expunged from the record.该提议要求把最后一个发言的人的讲话从记录上除掉。
If you that late movie last night, you wouldn’t be so sleepy.
A. haven’t watched B. didn’t watch
C. hadn’t watched D. wouldn’t have watched 答案选C。
Many dead would now be alive if they have not attempted to return for something.
Had Paul received six more votes in the last election, he would be our chairman now.
I would have gone to visit him in the hospital had it been at all possible, but I was fully occupied the whole of last week.
Your math instructor would have been happy to give you a make-up examination had you gone and explained that your parents were ill at the time.
（1）介词或介词短语，如but for, but that, without, in case of, under more favorable condition等。
the leadership of the party, we could not be living a happy today.=If there hadn’t been the leadership of the party, we could not be living a happy today.
A. In spite of B. But for C. Because of D. As for 答案选B。
But that she was afraid, she would have said no.
(2)连词，如：so that, unless, in case, supposing, lest, provided(倘若……)，for fear that(唯恐)，in order that, on condition that, if only(要是……就好了)等。
She listened carefully in order that she might discover exactly what he wanted.=if she listened carefully ,she might discover exactly what he wanted.
If only I had more money, I could buy a car.
(注：lest, for fear that 和 in case 引起的从句中谓语动词多用should+动词原形，但可以不用虚拟语气，而用动词的陈述语气形式。)例如：
The foreign teacher spoke slowly in case we misunderstood him. 这位外籍教师说得很慢以免我们听不懂。
Care must be taken in using this method lest overflow should occur.在使用此法时要小心谨慎，以免会发生溢流现象。
（3）通过上下文及内在含义，句中往往有but, otherwise, unfortunately等类似转折词。
I thought the children when we returned home, but they were still awake.
A. were sleeping B. would be sleeping C. had been sleeping D. would sleep选择 B。
A more careful person would not have made so many mistakes.
A less conscientious man wouldn’t have tried so hard to get this job done.
Having known in time, we might have prevented the accident.
Born ten days earlier, the boy could have seen his late father.
(6)动词不定式短语。一般intended/meant/hoped/wished/planned 或 was/were+不定式完成式或had intended/meant/planned/hoped/wished/+不定式一般式表示虚拟。
I intended I should call on you, but I was busy at that time.
To hear him speak French, you would take him for an Englishman.
She would be stupid not to accept his invitation.
It would be easier to do it this way.
A judicious man would not have committed suicide.
A diligent student would have worked harder.
All things considered, the price would be reasonable.
Anyone who had been in your position would have done the same.
A nation, which stopped working, would be dead in a fortnight.
I should have called to make an airline reservation, but I didn’t.
The porter ought to have called the fire-brigade as soon as he saw the fire in the stock, which went up in smoke.
God bless you!
All magnets behave the same, be they large or small.
She’ll be sixteen years odd, com May.(come May =when May come).
If that be so, we shall take action at once.