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1)must have+过去分词,表示对已发生情况的肯定推测,译为“(昨天)一定……”。如:
My pain apparent the moment I walked into the room, for the first man I met asked sympathetically:” Are you feeling all right?”
[A] must be [B] had been [C] must have been [D] had to be
2)can’t / couldn’t have+过去分词,表示对已发生情况的否定推测,译为“(昨天)一定没……”。如:
Mary my letter; otherwise she would have replied before now.
[A] couldn’t have received [B] ought to have received
[C] has received [D] shouldn’t have received
3)may / might have +过去分词,表示对已发生的事情做不肯定、可能性很小的推测,或事实上根本没发生,译为“也许……”。如:
At Florida Power’s Crystal River plant, a potentially serious leakage of radioactive water may have been unknowingly caused by an electrician.
1) needn’t have + 过去分词,表示做了不必做的事,相当于”didn’t need to do”,译为“其实没必要……”。如:
You needn’t have come over yourself.
As it turned out to be a small house party, we so formally.
[A] needn’t dress up [B]did not need have dressed up
[C] did not need dress up [D] needn’t have dressed up
2)should have +过去分词,表示应该做某事但实际上未做,译为“本应该……”should not + have过去分词表示本不应该做某事但实际上做了,译为“本不应该……”。如:
I regret having left the work unfinished; I should have planned everything ahead carefully.
3) ought to have +过去分词,表示动作按理该发生了,但实际上未发生,译为“该……”,与should 的完成式含义类似。如:
The porter ought to have called the fire-brigade as soon as he saw the fire in the stock, which went up in smoke .
4) could have +过去分词,表示过去本来可以做但却未做,译为“完全可以……”。这点与ought/should/ have +过去分词用法相似。如:
What you said is right, but you could have phrased it more tactfully.
5) may/ might have +过去分词,表示过去可以做但实际未做,译为“(那样)也许会……”。如:
It might have been better to include more punchy statistics and photos of equipment in the introduction to further assist first-time office automation managers.
1).may/might (just) as well “不妨,最好”,与had better相近;
Since the flight was cancelled, you might as well go by train.
既然航班已经取消了,你不妨乘火车吧。相当于you had better go by train。
2) .cannot / can’t…too …“越……越好,怎么也不过分”。注意这个句型的变体cannot…over….如:
You cannot be too careful when you drive a car.驾车时候,越小心越好。
The final chapter covers organizational change and development. This subject cannot be over emphasized .
3) .usedn’t 或did’t use to 为used to (do) 的否定式。
4).should 除了“应该”一层意思外,考研大纲还规定要掌握其“竟然”的意思。如:I didn’t expect that he should have behaved like that. 我无法想象他竟然这样做。
1. want, require, worth(形容词)后面接doing也可以表示被动意义。
Your hair wants cutting
The book is worth reading
The floor requires washing.
2.need既可以用need to be done 也可以使用need doing ,两种形式都表达被动的意义
The house needs painting= the house needs to be painted.
The watch needed repairing= the watch needed to be repaired.

(二) 形容词、副词及比较级最高级

1 以-ly结尾的是形容词而不是副词:
costly 昂贵的 lonely 孤独的
deadly 死一般的 lively 活泼的
friendly 友好的 silly 傻气的
kindly 热心肠的 likely 可能的
leisurely 悠闲的 ugly 长得丑的
brotherly 兄弟般的 monthly 每月的
earthly 尘世的
2 只作以“a”开头的很多形容词只能做表语:
afraid 害怕的 alike 相象的
awake 醒着的 alone 单独的,惟一的
alive 活着的 ashamed 羞愧的
asleep 睡着的 aware 意识到的、察觉到的
well 健康的 content 满意的
unable 无能的
3 只作前置定语的形容词
earthen 泥土做的,大地的 daily 每日的 latter 后面的
golden 金子般的 weekly 每周的 inner 里面的
silken 丝一般的 monthly 每月的 outer 外面的
wooden 木制的 yearly 每年的 elder 年长的
woolen 毛织的 former 前任的 mere 仅,只不过
only 惟一的 sheer 纯粹的 very 恰好的
little 小的 live 活的

remain keep become, get, grow, go, come, turn, stay, stand, run, prove, seem, appear, look。
如:All those left undone may sound great in theory, but even the truest believer has great difficulty when it comes to specifics.
1. 考比较级时,考生应把握:
Do you enjoy listening to records? I find records are often , or better than an actual performance.
[A]as good as [B]as good [C]good [D]good as
在这里as good as 比较连词与better than比较连词同时出现时候,不能省略任何一个介词。答案为A
On the whole, ambitious students are more likely to succeed in their studies than are those with little ambition.
The number of registered participants in this year’s marathon was half .
[A] of last year’s [B]those of last year’s
[C]of those of last year [D] that of last year’s
(前后相比的应该是今年和去年注册参加的人数“the number of”故代替它的应该是单数指示代词“that”,而不能选择B,those是指代participants,不是同类对比,答案为D。
Young readers, more often than not, find the novels of dickens far more exciting than Thackeray’s.
原级结构中可插入表达倍数的词,表示为“为….若干倍”,当与有表示倍数比较的词在一起时候等,他们的位置是,倍数词+as…as…,或倍数词+more…than…,但again一般放在原级词之后,即 “as+原级+again+as”.如:
Smoking is so harmful to personal health that it kills people each year than automobile accidents.
[A] seven more times [B] seven times more
[C] over seven times [D] seven times
“Do you regret paying five hundred dollars for the painting?”“No, I would gladly have paid for it.”
[A] twice so much [B] twice as much
[C] as much twice [D] so much twice
My uncle is as old again as I am
inferior, minor, senior, prior, prefer to, superior, major, junior, preferable, differ from, compared with, in comparison with, different from, rather than. 如:
Their watch is to all the other watches on the market.
[A] superior [B] advantageous [C] super [D] beneficial
Prior to his departure, he addressed a letter to his daughter. (1986年考研题)
5)“比较级+and +比较级”或“more and more/less and less +原级”以及“ever, steadily, daily等副词+比较级”结构表示“越来越……”的意思,与这类结构搭配的常用动词有grow, get ,become等。前面两种情况更多地出现在进行时态中,注意的是这三种情况引导的比较级后面都不需要用than.如:
Things are getting worse and worse.
As I spoke to him he became less and less angry.
Her health was becoming daily worse
The road got ever worse until there was no road at all = the road got worse and worse.
6)比较级前面可以用even, still, yet ,all the (more)等修饰语用以加强语气,表示“更加”的意思。如
Today it is even colder than yesterday
I have yet more exciting news for you
7) 有关比较级的特殊句型:
A): not so much…as…与其说……不如说……
The chief reason for the population growth isn’t so much a rise in birth rates a fall in death rates as a result of improvements in medical care.
[A] and [B] as [C]but [D] or
B) no/not any more…than…两者一样都不……
The heart is intelligent than the stomach, for they are both controlled by the brain.
[A] not so [B]not much [C]much more [D] no more
There is no reason they should limit how much vitamin you take, they can limit how much water you drink.
[A] much more than [B] no more than
[C] no less than [D] any more than
C)no/not any less…than…两者一样,都……注意基本上与no/not any more…than意思相反
She is no less beautiful than her sister.她和她姐姐一样漂亮
D)just as… so… 正如……, ……也……(用倒装结构)
Just as the soil is a part of the earth, the atmosphere.
[A] as it is [B] the same is [C] so is [D] and so is
1)最高级比较范围用介词in, over, of, among。
in, (all) over用于在某一范围内的比较,如:in China, all over the world.
of, among用于在同一群体内同类事物的比较,如:among the teachers, of the four dresses.
注意:among…相当于one of …,不说among all…。这一点考生应与汉语表达区别开来
all visible lights, red light has the longest and violet the shortest wavelength.
[A] Among [B] Of [C]For [D]To 答案为[B]
any other +单数名词
the other +复数名词
the others
anyone/anything else
上述词是用业将比较级结构转变成最高级意义的关键词语,切不可遗漏,尤其是other,否则会造成逻辑混乱的错误。如不能说:John runs faster than anyone.注意与汉语表达的不同。
3)most可以用来修饰形容词或副词,意思相当于very,用法区分单复数,但不能用定冠词the,如:a most interesting book, most expensive restaurants, 要注意与 “the +形容词最高级+of + 名词”的结构表示的最高级的区别,如:
He spoke in the warmest of voices
They have been most kind to me
Basketball is the most popular of sports in this country.
Chinese is the most difficult of language
Chinese is a most difficult language
1)表示颜色的有:white, black
2)表示形态的有:round, square, oval, circular, triangular(三角形),level
3)表示性质和特征的有:atomic, economic, scientific, sonic, golden, silvery, woolen, earthen, silent, full, empty, sure, dead, deaf, blind, lame, rainy
4)表示状态作表语的有:afraid, asleep, alive, ashamed, alone, aware, alike
5)表示时间、空间和方位的有:daily, weekly, monthly, annual, present, front, back, forward, backward, east, west, south, north, left, right, final
6)表示极限、主次、等级的有:maximum, minimum, utmost, main, major, chief minor, superior, inferior, senior, junior, super, favorite
7)含有绝对概念的有:absolute, entire, whole, total, perfect, excellent, thorough, complete.
The ideal listener stays both inside and outside the music at the moment it is played and enjoys it almost as much as the composer at the moment he composes.
大多数情况下平行结构都是具有一定的比较含义的,有的是递进对比not only…but (also) ;prefer…to…;rather than有的是同类对比:and ;but;or;both… and…;either…or…; neither…nor…..
It is better to die one’s feet than .
[A]living on one’s knees [B]live on one’s knees
[C]on one’s knees [D]to live on one’s knees
Despite the temporary difficulties, the manager prefers increasing the output to decreasing it.
1)rather than, let alone 虽不是并列连词,但在结构上连接两个语法形式相同的成分。如:
We are taught that a business letter should be written in a formal style in a personal style.
[A]rather than [B]other than [C]better than [D]less than
For the new country to survive, for its people to enjoy prosperity, new economic policies will be required.
[A] to name a few [B]let alone [C]not to speak [D]let’s say
At times, more care goes into the composition of newspaper and magazine advertisements than into the writing of the features and editorials.
that指代不可数名词和单数可数名词(如是复数,用those),后面通常跟有修饰语,如出现在比较结构中的that of。如
Conversation calls for a willingness to alternate the role of speaker with that of listener, and it calls for occasional “digestive pauses” by both.这里that指代前面的the role。
No bread eaten by men is so sweet as that earned by his own labor.
one指代带不定冠词的单数可数名词,复数为ones。the one指代带定冠词的单数可数名词。如:
A good writer is who can express the commonplace in an uncommon way.
[A] that [B]he [C]one [D]this
For him to be re-elected, what is essential is not that his policy works , but that the public believe that it does.
Each cigarette a person smokes does some harm, and eventually he may get a serious disease form its effect.
It was during the 1920’s that the friendship between the two American writers Hemingway and Fitzgerald reached its highest point.
Our department was monitored by two supervisors, Bill and me.
由either … or, neither…nor, not only…but (also)连接先行词时候,如果两个先行词在数和性上保持一致,就用其相应的一直的人称代词;如果两个先行词在数或性上不一致,人称代词一般与邻近的先行词在数和性上保持一致。
Neither Mary nor Alice has her key with her.
Neither the package nor the letters have reached their destination
If either David or Janet comes , he or she will want a drink
2.当each, everyone, everybody, no one ,none ,anybody, someone, somebody用作主语或主语的限定词时候,或者anything, nothing, something everything等不定代词作主语时候,其相应的代词一般按照语法一致原则,采取单数形式。如:
Everybody talked at the top of his voice.
None of the boys can do it , can he?
Everything is ready, isn’t it”
3.当主语为复数形式,后跟each作同位语时,如果each位于动词之前,其后的代词或相应的限定词用复数形式;如果 each位于动词之后,其后的代词或相应的限定词用单数形式。如:
They each have two coats
we are each responsible for his own family
如:the tourist and businessmen lost their luggage in the accident

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