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英语语法归纳与练习2

 
 
(三) 主谓一致问题
主谓一致是指主语与谓语在数上要一致。把握主谓一致问题,考生主要解决的是对不同结构的主语单复数的认定,进而选择适当的谓语。解决主谓一致主要遵循三个原则:
语法一致原则
意义一致原则
就近一致原则
很多情况下应该综合利用这三个原则来处理主谓一致,在不同情况下可能应用三个原则中的不同原则,具体应用哪种原则应该视具体情况而定。总结如下:
一.谓语动词用单数的情况
1.动名词短语、不定式短语、名词性从句做主语,谓语用单数。如:
Buying clothes is often a time-consuming job because those clothes that a person likes are rarely the cones that fit him or her.
(1987年考研题)
To understand the situation completely requires more thought than has been given thus far.
2.表示时间、距离、金额、重量、面积、体积、容积等度量的名词短语做主语时,谓语用单数。
Two weeks was too long
Five times five makes twenty five
3.一般用and连接的两个单词或短语做主语时候,谓语用复数,但是下面用and连接的主语表示一个概念,谓语用单数:
law and order 法制 soap and water 肥皂水
a cup and saucer 茶杯碟子 fork and knife 刀叉
the needle and thread 针线 trial and error 反复尝试,不断摸索
horse and carriage 马车 time and tide 岁月
bread and butter 奶油面包 the ebb and flow 盛衰,潮涨潮落
如: If law and order not preserved, neither the citizen nor his property is safe.
A. is B. are C. was d. were
答案:A。
4.表示学科和某些疾病名称的名词是复数形式,作主语时候谓语动词用单数形式
Linguistics is a branch of study on human language.
5.有些名词形式上是复数,意义上是单数,根据意义一致原则动词用单数
The chaos was stopped by the police
The news is a great encouragement to us
A series of debates between the lectures was scheduled for the next weekend.
6.用and 连接的成份表示一个单一概念时候,动词谓语用单数形式
Bread and butter is our daily food
Time and tide waits for no man
二. 谓语用复数情况
1. 由and, both …and, 连接的并列主语,和both ,a few, many ,several 等修饰语后面谓语动词通常用复数形式。
Few people know he and I were classmates when we were at college.
2.集体名词police, public, militia, cattle ,class ,youth后常用复数形式的动词
The Chinese people are brave and hardworking
The cattle are grazing in the sunshine
3.当表示民族的词与冠词合用当主语,谓语动词用复数形式
The Japanese were once very aggressive
4.某些形容词前面加定冠词表示一类人,做主语时候,谓语动词用复数
The rich are not always selfish
5.不可数名词作主语,其前有表示数量的复数名词修饰时,谓语动词用复数
Three million tons of coal were exported that year
三.谓语动词可用单数,也可以用复数的情况
1. 就近一致原则
这种情况下,谓语动词使用单数还是复数取决于最靠近该动词的主语的单复数,存在这种情况的主要由以下几种可能:
1) 由连词 either…or…; neither…nor…; whether… or…;not only…but (also) ;or 等连接的并列主语
Neither money nor fame has influence on me
Not only you but also he is wrong
2) 在倒装结构中,谓语动词与后面的第一个主语一致
Blocking the open-sided porch, framed by the enveloping fog, stands a tall grave-faced policeman.
Just outside the ruins is a magnificent building surrounded by tall trees.
Although a great number of houses in that area are still in need of repair, there has been improvement in the facili
2. 主语带有(together/along)with, such as, accompanied by, as well as, no less than, except, besides, with, combined with, in addition to , including, together with 等等附加成分,谓语的数不受附加成分的影响仍然与主语保持一致
Professor Taylor , with six of his students ,is attending a conference in Boston organized to compare current practice in the United States with those of other nations.
The president of the college, together with the deans, is planning a conference for the purpose of laying down certain regulations. (1981年考研题)
3.关系代词做主语的定语从句中,谓语的数要与先行词一致。如:
Despite much research, there are still certain elements in the life cycle of the insect that are not fully understood.
(1996年考研题)
There are many valuable services which the public are willing to pay for, but which do not bring a return in money to the community.
(1990年考研题)
4.一些表示数量的短语与名词连用时候,谓语动词的数取决于名词的数,名词是复数,谓语动词用复数,反之就用单数。这些短语包括:a lot of /lots of; plenty of/heaps of; half of; two-third (three-fourth…) of; eighty(ten, twenty…) percent; part of; rest of ; none of 等等
Two-thirds of people present are women
Lots of damage was caused by the fire
5.集体名词作主语时,谓语动词的数取决于主语表示的意思和数,当表示整体时候,谓语动词就用单数,当强调集体中的个体时候,谓语动词就用复数。这些集体名词如:army, audience, band ,government ,group ,flock, police, public ,staff ,team ,troop. Crowd, firm, family 等等
The family is the basic unit of our society
The family were watching the TV
The audience was enormous
The audience were greatly moved at the words
6.某些固定结构中主语与谓语的数:
第一组:
a great many + 可数名词复数 谓语用复数
a number of + 可数名词复数 谓语用复数
the majority of + 可数名词复数 谓语用复数
第二组;
the number of + 可数名词复数 谓语用单数
each/every + 可数名词复数 谓语用单数
neither/either of + 可数名词复数 谓语用单数
one and a half + 可数名词复数 谓语用单数
第三组;
more than one + 可数名词单数 谓语用单数
many a + 可数名词单数 谓语用单数
第四组;
the greater part of
a large proportion of
50% of
one third of
plenty of
the rest of
谓语的数与of 后面的名词一致
第五组;
(n)either…(n)or….
not only….. but also ……
not …..but ……
谓语的数与主语的第二部分(即(n)or/ but also/ but引导的后面部分)一致.
注意比较:
More students than one have been referred to
More than one student is going to buy this book
(四)倒装结构
倒装是指句子成分不是按主语在前、谓语在后的正常语序排列,而是将谓语或谓语的一部分移到主语之前。倒装是一种修辞手段,目的是为了强调。倒装分为部分倒装和全部倒装,考试多为部分倒装。考生应掌握什么情况下需要倒装,并对倒装后的句子能够认出来,避免做题时候的盲目和迷茫。
一. 用全部倒装的情况
全部倒装一般是存在以下列副词开头的句子中,全部倒装的方法是把句子的主谓语序颠倒过来,把谓语移到主语前面:
1)出于修辞需要,表示方向的副词:out, down, in ,up, away, on。如:
Down jumped the burglar from the tenth floor when he heard someone shouted at him.
Up went the plane
2)出于习惯用法:here, there, now, thus, hence, then.如:
Now is your turn. There goes the bell.
Here is a ticket for you
There existed a certain doubt among the students as to the necessity of work
注意:here,there用于倒装结构时主语一般为名词,如果是人称代词则不需要倒装
“ where is the cup?” “Here it is!”
Here you are.
There he comes.
3)有时主语较长,为了使句子平衡,避免头重脚轻,主谓要全部倒装。这种情况多出现在主系表结构中。如:
Less important than ever is developing a meaningful philosophy of life.
In between these two extremes are those people who agree with the jury system as a whole, but feel that some changes need to be implemented to improve its effectiveness.
二. 采用部分倒装情况
部分倒装一般是把句子谓语的一部分(主要是助动词或系动词)放到句子主语前,构成部分倒装,而全部倒装则把句子的谓语(包括实义动词)都放在主语前
1.下列否定词及含有否定意义的词组修饰状语时,若置于句首,句子的主谓要部分倒装,:
never, no, neither, not only, hardly, scarcely, little, seldom, rarely, not until, nowhere, at no time, on no account, in no respect, in no sense, by no means, in vain, still less。如:
Not only is its direct attack on their discipline, it bypasses the essence of what sociologists focus on.
Under no circumstances should we do anything that will benefit ourselves but harm the interests of the state.
(1985年考研题)
注:1)如果谓语动词是单个实义动词,倒装时需根据人称和时态加助动词do。如:
Little did we expect that he would fulfill his task so rapidly.
(1983年考研题)
2)考生要广义理解“句首”的概念,注意从句的句首和并列分句的句首均为句首。如:
Suddenly, Gallup’s name was on everyone’s lips; not only was he the prophet of the moment, but it was generally believed that he had founded a new and most important method of prediction.
2.以only修饰状语(副词,介词短语,状语从句)开头的句子,句子的主谓要部分倒装:
only then, only at that time, only once, only in this way, only with, only through, only by, only when, only after, only because。如:
Only when you have obtained sufficient data come to a sound conclusion.
[A]can you [B]would you [C]you will [D]you can
3.以下列副词或短语开头的句子,句子的主谓要部分倒装:
often, so, well, to such a degree, to such an extent, to such extremes, to such a point, many a time。如:
So involved with their computers that leaders at summer computer camps often have to force them to break for sports and games.
[A]became the children [B]become the children
[C]had the children become [D]do the children become
(2001年考研题,答案为D)
4.比较从句的倒装:
as, than引导的比较从句中,如果主语是名词短语且较长,经常采用倒装结构(不倒装也可以)。注意:这种结构主语一般为名词,如果是代词则不倒装。如:
Hydrogen burns much more cleanly than do other fuels and is easy to produce.
Today’s electuic cars cannot go as fast as gasoline-driven vehicles because the battery does not offer the same amount of energy as does gasoline combustion.
Reading is to the mind as is exercise to the body.
5.用于前面所说的情况也适用于另一人(物)的肯定句或否定句中的倒装
1) 肯定重复倒装用:so
They have got up, and so has jack
2) 否定重复倒装用:nor, neither, no more
If you don’t agree to our plan, neither will they
6.“not only..but also”结构时,如果not only 放在句首,则前半句but (also)句子后面不倒装
Not only did we lose all our money, but we also came close to being broke.
三. 特殊的倒装结构
特殊形式的倒装结构是指句子虽然是倒装结构,但不是主谓倒装,而往往是出于强调的需要,把强调部分移到句首,而其它部分顺序不需要改变,句子主谓不需要倒装。出现这样的情况有以下几种可能:
1.让步从句的倒装。
1)as引导让步状语从句,必须采用倒装结构,但不是主谓倒装,而是将被强调的内容置于句首。如:
Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone to equal her, in thoroughness, whatever the job.
Brave as they are, they are afraid of fight
2).出现在句型be+主语+其他,come what may中。如:
While it’s true that we all need a career, preferably a profitable one, it is equally true that our civilization has accumulated an incredible amount of knowledge—be it scientific or artistic.
The business of each day selling goods or shipping them, went quite smoothly.
[A] it being [B] be it [C] was it [D] it was (答案为B)
3) no matter how(who…);however引导的让步状语从句必须采用倒装结构,但不是主谓倒装,而是将被强调的内容置于句首。如:
No matter how busy he is , he has to attend the meeting
However cold it is , he always goes swimming.
语法测试
1. She said that she __ much progress since she came here.
A. makes B. made C. have made D had made
2. “What’s the matter, Ali? You look sad."
“Oh, nothing much. As a matter of fact, I my friends back home."
A. just thought B. have just been thinking
C. was just thinking D. have just thought
3. She on this essay for twenty minutes but she has written only about a hundred words.
A. will be working B. worked
C. has been working D. will have worked
4. The committee will not make the decision until it the matter.
A. has investigated B.investigates
C. will have investigated D. investigated
5. Carey didn`t go to the party last night because she the baby for her sister until 9:30.
A.must have looked after B. would have to look after
C. had to look after D. should have looked after
6. four years since John left school.
A. They have been B. It is C. It was D. Those are
7.The car at the present speed until it reaches the foot of the mountain at about 4 o` clock this afternoon.
A. has gone B. has not gone
C will be going D. has been going
8. By the time you arrive in London, we __ in Europe for two weeks.
A. shall stay B. have stayed
C. will have stayed D. have been staying
9. Between 1897 and 1919 at least 29 motion pictures in which artificial beings were portrayed .
A. had produced B. have been produced
C. would have produced D. had been produced
10. The president __ the delegation at the airport but he was taken ill last night, so the vice-president is going to instead.
A. is to meet B. was to meet
C. has been to meet D. was to have met
语法测题答案与详解
1.(D) 根据时态一致的原则,间接引语(或宾语从句)的时态应与主句的时态一致。该句中said是过去时所以that引导的宾语从句中也要用过去的某一种时态,而从句中since引导的时间状语从句表明其应为完 成时态,故应用过去完成时态。
2.(C) 通过上下文可以判定Ali看起来很难受很伤心,是因为刚才在进行的事情所导致的,所以用过去进行时较好,故(C)是正确答案。
3,(C) 根据句意和时间状语for twenty minutes,可以判断这里应填入现在完成时态,现在完成进行时是现在完成时态的强调形式,并且选项中没有现在完成时态,所以(C)是正确答案。
4.(A) 句意表明委员会是在调查事件之后才会做出决定,调查应发生在决定之前,所以应用将来完成时态,但是在英语中,时间条件状语从句中的将来完成时态是由现在完成时来表示的,所以正确答案是(A)。
5.(C) 从上下文的逻辑意义看,(C)项是唯一的正确答案。Carey没有参加晚会,原因是给她姐姐照看小孩子。而(A)和(D)表示对过去发生的事情根据客观情况作出主观推断:(A)作“准是看孩子了”讲;(D)作 “本应该看孩子”讲,都不对,而(B)表示动作发生在过去的将来,也不对,所以只有(C)正确。
6.(B) 这是一个固定结构(或句型)。本句也可说在"Four years have passed since John left school.”或“has been four years sinceJohn left schoo1.’’
7,(C) until引导的时间状语从句用了一般现在时表示将来的意思,主句因此必须用一般将来时与之呼应,口语中常用将来进行时代替一般将来时表示预料即将发生或肯定发生的事,也可表示某件事已经决定了。本句完全可以用will go 因此,正确答案是(C)。 ·
8.(C) by the time引导的时间状语从句中若谓语动词用现在时,则主句要用将来完成时;若谓语动词用过去时,则主句要用过去完成时,有时也可以用过去将来完成时。这样,本道题目的正确答案是(C)。
9.(D) 有具体表示过去某一时间段内业已发生的事件的时间状语,句子应该用过去完成时。
10.(B) 由第一个句子中的but引导的转折句中所用的过去时,可以判断总统本要在机场接见代表团,表示计划要做某事在英语中可以用be+动词不定式来表达,故正确答案是B)。
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浙江翻译公司 杭州 宁波 绍兴 温州 温岭 湖州 嘉兴 台州 永康 金华 舟山 瑞安 余姚 慈溪 义乌 海宁 桐乡 兰溪 乐清 龙泉 丽水 建德 富阳 平湖 东阳 嵊州 奉化 临安 江山 安吉 昌化 常山 长兴 岱山 德清 舟山 洞头 东阳 海盐 洪家 湖州 嘉善 缙云 开化 临海 龙游 平阳 浦江 普陀 青田 庆元 三门 嵊山 嵊泗 石浦 遂昌 泰顺 天台 桐庐 文成 武义 象山 仙居 萧山 新昌 永嘉 玉环 云和
江苏翻译公司 南京 无锡 常州 扬州 东台 徐州 江阴 苏州 常熟 镇江 南通 通州 连云港 海门 盐城 溧阳 泰兴 如皋 泰州 昆山 宜兴 兴化 张家港 启东 江都 丹阳 吴江 靖江 淮安 扬中 宿迁 大丰 仪征 太仓 高邮 金坛 句容
湖南翻译公司 长沙 郴州 娄底 衡阳 株洲 湘潭 岳阳 常德 邵阳 益阳 永州 张家界 怀化
湖北翻译公司 武汉 荆门 咸宁 襄樊 荆州 黄石 宜昌 仙桃 天门
广东翻译公司 广州 深圳 佛山 汕头 湛江 韶关 中山 珠海 肇庆 惠州 潮州 汕尾 东莞 江门
广西翻译公司 南宁 柳州 桂林 北海 玉林 钦州 桂平
海南翻译公司 海口 三亚 文昌
重庆翻译公司 重庆 永川 江津 合川 南川
西藏翻译公司 拉萨 日喀则 林芝区
四川翻译公司 成都 南充 自贡 泸州 内江 宜宾 广元 德阳 资阳 绵阳 都江堰
云南翻译公司 昆明 玉溪 大理 曲靖 个旧 瑞丽 丽江
贵州翻译公司 贵阳 安顺 遵义
陕西翻译公司 西安 咸阳 榆林 宝鸡 铜川 汉中 商洛 延安
河南翻译公司 郑州 洛阳 商丘 信阳 新乡 安阳 开封 漯河 南阳 鹤壁 平顶山 许昌
辽宁翻译公司 沈阳 大连 盘锦 鞍山 抚顺 本溪 铁岭 锦州 丹东 辽阳 葫芦岛
吉林翻译公司 长春 吉林 通化 白城 双辽 四平 辽源 集安 延吉
黑龙江翻译公司哈尔滨 牡丹江 佳木斯 富锦 大庆 鸡西 鹤岗 双鸭山 齐齐哈尔 五大连池
安徽翻译公司 合肥 芜湖 亳州 马鞍山 淮南 淮北 蚌埠 巢湖 安庆 宿州 铜陵 黄山
宁夏翻译公司 银川 固原 青铜峡
青海翻译公司 西宁 格尔木 德令哈
甘肃翻译公司 兰州 平凉 张掖 嘉峪关 玉门 酒泉 敦煌
福建翻译公司 厦门 福州 泉州 漳州 南平 晋江 邵武 石狮
江西翻译公司 南昌 赣州 景德镇 九江 萍乡 宜春 上饶 鹰潭 瑞昌 瑞金
山东翻译公司 济南 青岛 潍坊 淄博 威海 枣庄 泰安 临沂 东营 济宁 滕州 烟台 菏泽 日照 德州 聊城 即墨 滨州 莱芜 寿光 青州 莱阳 诸城 高密 安丘 曲阜 招远
内蒙翻译公司 扎兰屯 包头 赤峰 满洲里 鄂尔多斯 乌兰察布 呼和浩特 乌兰浩特 牙克石 呼伦贝尔
山西翻译公司 太原 大同 阳泉 长治 临汾 晋中 运城 晋城 汾阳
新疆翻译公司 乌鲁木齐 石河子 喀什 阿克苏 库尔勒
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  新译通上海翻译公司(021-51095788)
  新译通北京翻译公司(010-51664969)
  新译通广州翻译公司(020-61136266)
  新译通深圳翻译公司(755-61288201)